The Annual Haifa Conference on the Mediterranean Sea Research - Day 1

haifa munititleuniv


Prof. Carole R. Engle

Engle-Stone Aquatic LLC
Adjunct Faculty, VA Seafood AREC, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Virginia, USA

Carole Engle

Short Bio

Prof. Carole Engle has devoted more than 40 years to research, extension, and teaching related to the economics and marketing of aquaculture. She has published more than 125 scientific articles, 5 books, and more than 110 extension/outreach publications. She is a past-President of the U.S. Aquaculture Society and the International Association of Aquaculture Economics and Management and past Director of the World Aquaculture Society. She is Adjunct Faculty, VA Seafood AREC, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Honors include receiving the Distinguished Service Award from the U.S. Aquaculture Society, the McCraren Award from the National Aquaculture Association (received this award three times), Researcher-of-the-Year from the Catfish Farmers of America, and Distinguished Service Award from the Catfish Farmers of Arkansas (received this award twice). Engle was on the faculty of the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff for more than 27 years and, as Director and Chairperson of Aquaculture/Fisheries, led it through a period of rapid growth, development, and expansion. Following retirement, she and her husband, Nathan Stone, re-located to Virginia, USA, and started Engle-Stone Aquatic$ LLC, a consulting business. She continues to work closely with aquaculture businesses and values the contributions that research and extension programs have made to the growth and development of successful aquaculture businesses on many scales of production.

Abstract-Economics of Sustainable Aquaculture and Fisheries – A Look Towards 2050 and Beyond

Sustainability has become a widely accepted necessary condition for production of all forms of food and other products, including aquaculture and fisheries. Debates continue as to what sustainable management is, how it should be measured, and how to identify aquaculture or fisheries options that are more sustainable than others. Economics offers a very appropriate lens through which to view and assess issues related to sustainability because at its most fundamental level, economics addresses the problem of how to allocate scarce resources among competing demands.

Sustainability is a very broad, generic term, for which many definitions and metrics have been proposed. While often used to refer only to environmental sustainability, the word “sustainability” in its most generic usage refers to whether a process or condition can be maintained and continued into the future. The fundamental conundrum faced today is how to feed the world’s population in a way that will also maintain ecosystem services and environmental quality. Addressing this core problem requires integration of the many intersecting factors that affect whether our food production and ecological systems can be sustained into the future. Discussing sustainability in terms of only one or two resources (i.e., land or water), for example, may lead to claims that one type of production system is “more sustainable” than another. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), for example, clearly use less land than pond-based systems, but recent studies have shown that capital, labor, and perhaps water resources are used more efficiently in intensive pond production in some countries. Other work has shown that intensive shrimp production overall uses fewer resources per metric ton of shrimp produced than more extensive shrimp production in Vietnam, Thailand, and India.

Feeding the world’s population while sustaining ecosystem services is of course not a simple task. To continue into the future, aquaculture businesses must be profitable and all key resources such as land, water, energy, but also labor and capital must be used efficiently. Truly sustainable choices will need to be based on continued technological advances, especially those related to increasing food production from the sea, but those choices must be made with careful attention to efficient use of all environmental and economic resources.


Prof. Charles Yarish

University of Connecticut
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Stamford, CT, 06901-2315

Prof. Charles Yarish

Short Bio

Charles Yarish received his Ph.D. from Rutgers University (1976) and then joined the faculty at UCONN (1976). He has been an adjunct Professor at Stony Brook University, visiting Scientist at the BiologischeAnstalt Helgoland (Germany), visiting Professor at the University of Groningen (Netherlands), and a Guest Professor at Shanghai Ocean University. He has served on The Advisory Board of the NRC (Canada) for the Institute of Marine BioSciences. Yarish received the 1992 Marinalg Award's First Prize, has been a national lecturer for the Phycological of America & President (2001). He has been an invited participant to symposia in Canada, Chile, China, Cuba, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Mexico, Portugal, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, The Netherlands and USA. At UCONN, he has developed an internationally known laboratory for seaweed research and aquaculture. He is most interested in the development of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) and nutrient bioextraction systems for coastal management, as well as expanding seaweed aquaculture in North America. He has published extensively and has received numerous extramural grants and awards. His latest co-edited book is: Latimer, J.S., M. Tedesco, R.L. Swanson, C. Yarish, P. Stacey and C. Garza. 2014. Long Island Sound: Prospects for the Urban Sea. Springer Science+Business Media, NY. 558pp. Dr. Yarish is globally recognized for his expertise and breadth of his research program and in 2019 received The Phycological Society of America’s Award of Excellence.

Abstract- Opportunities, Challenges and Future Directions of Seaweed Aquaculture

Global seaweed aquaculture production is approximately 29.4 million metric tons with an annual value of $11.7 billion in 2016. In the past four hundred years, seaweeds have been very important part in Asian cuisine more so than in western cultures. Global seaweed aquaculture production occupies approximately 25% of total world marine aquaculture production by weight, with upwards of 97% being produced in Asia. Seaweed aquaculture production is dominated (> 81 % of total production) by several species: the brown kelp, Saccharina japonica and Undariapinnatifida; and the red seaweeds including Pyropia/Porphyraspp. (‘nori’ in Japanese and ‘gim’ in Korean), Kappaphycusalvareziiand Eucheumastriatum (carrageenophytes) and Gracilaria/Gracilariopsis spp.(agarophytes). Currently, more than 50,000 tons of seaweed have been cultivated in the Americas and Europe with an annual value of US $51 million. Although seaweed aquaculture is a relatively new industry in North America and Europe, the demand by western markets is expected to increase rapidly due to growing consumer demand for new protein sources, healthy food supplements, food industry’s interest in sustainable textural additives and food security. The most valued of the maricultured seaweeds is the red alga Pyropia/Porphyra, or nori. It is a major source of food for humans throughout the world, although it is primarily cultivated in Asia (Japan, South Korea and China). Worldwide production is approximately 14 billion sheets, with an annual value of over $U.S. 1.4 billion. Pyropia/Porphyra has the highest commercial value per unit mass ($637 per ton) in comparison to other aquacultured species, kelp, $158; Gracilaria, $283, Kappaphycus/Eucheuma, $183 and Sargassum, $500.  In addition to Pyropia/Porphyra, other edible seaweeds include Gracilaria, Undaria, Saccharina/Laminaria and Caulerpa with their collective value exceeding $U.S. 9.50 billion. Seaweeds are also the industrial sources of carrageenans (Chondrus,Eucheuma and Kappaphycus), alginates (Ascophyllum, Laminaria, Saccharinaand Macrocystis) and agars (Gelidium and Gracilaria). These important polysaccharides are used in the food, textile, biotechnological and biomedical industries and have a global value of more than U.S. $1 billion. The increasing demand for safe, healthy, and minimally processed foods is creating an opportunity for seaweed products as functional foods, nutraceuticals, and alternative medicinal products in the global market place. There are now unique opportunities for seaweed farmers, both for land-based and open water farms, to work with phycologists, ocean engineers, plant geneticists and others to develop and apply advanced breeding technologies that will increase growth and productivity of these farming systems.

Prof. Shaobo Chen

Chief Scientist
Zhejiang Mariculture Research Institute
6-1 Hetongqiao, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325005

Prof. Shaobo Chen

Short Bio

Shaobo Chen has been devoted to the research of mariculture and coastal ecology for more than 30 years, and has presided over or participated in a total of 53 relevant scientific research projects including 22 national and provincial projects in China and 10 international projects aided by UNDP, APEC, Asian Development Bank and Italian government, etc. Concurrently he is holding positions as a board member of China Ocean Engineering Consulting Association as well as the East China Sea Environmental Branch of China Pacific Society. He also serves as a member of Aquaculture Sub-group of Advisory Group for formulation of the 13th Five-Year Plan in Zhejiang Province. He is now the PI of “R&D and demonstration of key technologies for conservation of important biological resources in the East China Sea” which is a unit of China’s key R&D project related to marine conservation under the Ministry of Science and Technology.

Abstract-Status and Future-oriented Practices of Mariculture in China

China's coast stretches across three climate zones from temperate and subtropical into tropical zones with 140,000 km coastline and 3,000,000 km2 of marine area and 6,500 islands under its jurisdiction, which hosts an exceptional marine biodiversity comprising about 20,300 recorded species. The rich coastal and marine resources in turn support the flourish development of mariculture industry. Mariculture in China could trace back to before Han Dynasty which started from 202 BC, when the oyster culture was practiced. In Son Dynasty (960-1279), the method of culturing pearls was invented. Since the establishing of People’s Republic of China in 1949, six development booms of mariculture could be identified: the 1st boom - marine algal culture in 1960s, the 2nd boom- marine shrimp culture in 1980s, the 3rd boom - shellfish culture in 1990s, the 4th boom - marine fish culture in the end of 20th century, the 5th boom - culture of precious marine products (e.g., sea cucumber and abalone) in the beginning of the 21th century, and the 6th boom – large marine ranching in the new era of 21st century. The mariculure industry in China has been developing very fast, and both the area and total output of the sector has ranked the top of the world, with 20.84 km2 and 20,007,000 tonnes respectively in 2017. The cultured species include fish, shrimp and crab, shellfish, algae and precious species, and the culture forms include pond culture, normal cage culture, deep water cage culture, raft culture, suspending cage culture, bottom sowing culture and industrialized culture, etc.. Main achievements of mariculture technologies are industrialized breeding, production of multiploid species, development and production of healthy pellet feed, new species culture, development of modern culture facilities and R&D of new culture technologies, etc..With the vast development, China’s mariculture is also facing big problems including self-pollution and exogenous pollution, lacking of excellent germplasm and seedlings, diseases and decreasing of space for culture, etc.. To deal with the challenges, China has devoted to the development to future-oriented mariculture modes, e.g. the ecological mariculture with IMTA (Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture) as main part and the modernized marine ranching are in practicing.


Prof. Ami Ben-Amotz

Nature Beta Technologies Ltd.
North Industrial Zone
Eilat, Israel

Prof. Ami Ben Amotz

Short Bio

Ami Ben-Amotz received his B.Sc. & M.Sc. degrees at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and PhD at the Weitzman Institute of Science (WIS), Israel, the last on studies related to the halotolerant algaDunaliella. After post doctorate studies at Brandeis University, Boston, USA, on hydrogen production by marine algae and Batsheva de Rothschildfellowship on marine algae at the University of California, San Diego, USA, Prof. Ben-Amotz returned to Israel in 1975 and initiated academic and research activities at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) and at the WIS, the last was the core of his long time research with the late Prof. M. Avron to study the biology, physiology, biochemistry and biotechnology of marine microalgae with emphasis on the halotolerant algaDunaliella. The fruitful scientific cooperation opened the way to establish the commercial Dunaliella plant in Eilat, Israel, known as Nature Beta Technologies Ltd, (NBT), later subsidiary of Nikken Sohonsha Co., Japan. Along his extensive career with marine microalgae, Prof. Ben-Amotz served as Head of the Department of Marine Biology, the NIO, and Head of the Dunaliella Section at the WIS. Ami Ben-Amotz served as President of the International Marine Biotechnology Conference in Israel in 2007 and later for 4 years, 2014-2018 Leading Partner of the European Commission D-Factory project on Dunaliella.

He is now serving as the Chief Scientist of NBT, Israel, and Chief Scientist of Nikken Sohonsha Co., Japan. Ami Ben-Amotz has more than 150 scientific publications including 3 books on aspects related to marine algae, natural products andalgae & environment.

Abstract- Microalgae as Food Additive, Nutritional Supplement and Novel Food, from the lab bench to the market

The algal kingdom is divided into eleven classes as compared to only one class of all higher plants. The distribution taxonomy and classification of the algae is founded mainly on basic cellular features of pigments, carbohydrates and lipids assisted recently by genetic identification. Algae are spread in many habitats and ecological niches, in freshwater, marine and salt environments, from freezing to extreme high temperatures, under wide irradiation spectra and intensities, phototrophic and heterotrophic. Out of the many unicellular algae known only a few species have reached the applied arcade. The first species were Tetraselmis, Scenedesmus, Navicula, Isochrisis, Phaeodactylumand a few others used as feed in aquaculture and mariculture. Chlorella and Spirulina followed mid of the last century for human food in the Far East. A few other microalgae like Dunaliella,Haematococcus, Nannochloropsis, PorphyridiumandPhaeodactylumhave been introduced over the last decade for high value biochemicals of vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and natural colors. In the last 10 years algae were considered as feasible option for biofuel but the low photosynthetic efficiency and the high cost of biosolar algal production together with sophisticated harvesting and processing turned the energy stage open to other lower cost energy resources.    

Case studies of economic success:Dunaliella, halotolerant member of the Chlorophyceae regulates its osmotic intracellular pressure by buildup of high concentration of glycerol up to 60% of the cell dry weight, simple carbohydrate with low economic value.

Dunaliella adapts to extreme solar radiation by the accumulation of excessive content of chloroplastic peripheral extra-plastidic globular orange β-carotene. The content of β-carotene may exceed 10% per dry weight, about 100 times higher than in high carotenoids vegetable and fruits like carrot, sweet potato, mango or persimmon. The β-carotene in Dunaliella is composed of two stereoisomers, all-trans and 9-cis reaching a ratio of 1/1 under certain growth conditions.

Parallel to Dunaliella and through closely similar physiology and biochemistry the fresh water chlorophyte Haematococcus pluvialis produces and accumulates high content of the pink-red pigment astaxanthin

NBT Ltd. Under licensing and knowhow agreement by the Weizmann Institute of Science has been cultivating Dunaliellasince 1987 in open ponds close to the Red Sea, Eilat on area size of 100,000m2 producing salt washed Dunaliella powder at the equivalent quantity of 3,000 kg natural β-carotene/year. Algatech Ltd., is cultivating Haematococcuspluvialis algae in close tubular photobiorectors in Kibbutz Ketura under knowhow of Ben-Gurion University and their major product is extracted astaxanthin oleoresin.

Dunaliella natural stereo-isomeric β-carotene, USA GRAS-FDA approved expresses medical and preventative properties against certain chronic diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, psoriasis and the eye disease, retinitis pigmentosa. The associated medical studies are conducted by Tel Hashomer Hospital, Sheba Medical Center, Israel to show that the clinical effect of Dunaliella is expressed through the conversion of the 9-cis β-carotene to two nuclear receptors, RXR, 9-cis retinoic acid and RAR, all-trans retinoic acid in equivalent ratio, both active as essential ligands in cell nuclear transcription.

Israel today is the pioneering country in applied phycology of micro algae, leading in cultivation, harvesting, processing and application, a global model of success.  


Dr. Craig Browdy

Director of Research and Development
Zeigler Bros. Inc., 5 Tomotley Ct.
Charleston SC 29407

Dr. Craig Browdy

Short Bio

Dr. Craig Browdy is a past president and fellow of the World Aquaculture Society. He served as assistant director of the South Carolina Marine Resources Research Institute, leading the Institute’s Waddell Mariculture Research and Development Center. Dr. Browdy served as executive manager for global aquaculture research and product development for Novus International Inc. a worldwide leader in animal nutrition and health applications. Currently he is the director of research and development for Zeigler Brothers Inc. an innovative global specialty feed company.      

His research over the past 30 years has been conducted in collaboration with leading aquaculture scientists and research laboratories worldwide. Dr Browdy’s work focuses on basic and applied science for development of innovative technologies that improve farmed seafood production. His contributions include fundamental studies on physiology, genomics and systems engineering. He has lead interdisciplinary studies towards commercial product development for improvement of aquatic animal nutrition and health, advancement of aquaculture production systems, and enhancement of seafood quality. Dr. Browdy has edited three books and has authored over 100 peer reviewed publications and book chapters.

Abstract- Shellfish Aquaculture - Current Status and Future Opportunities

The harvest of shrimp, oysters and other shellfish has provided humans with healthy, nutritious and tasty seafood delicacies since the origins of mankind. Hatchery techniques have overcome dependence on wild stocks, enabling genetic improvement and rapid growth in shellfish aquaculture for an increasing variety of species. According to FAO statistics, in 2016, over 17.1 MMT of molluscs and over 7.8 MMT of crustaceans were produced in world aquaculture. From 2010, production grew 21.9% and 40.7% for molluscs and crustaceans respectively.

Mollusc culture is dominated by the bivalves: oysters, clams, scallops and mussels. Hatcheries hold, condition and spawn broodstock and then rear larvae and juveniles utilizing large quantities of microalgae as food. Growout techniques vary among species. One of the most important prerequisites is the selection of an appropriate site. In general, oysters are typically grown suspended in the water column or on structures elevated off the bottom in shallow water. Scallops are mainly grown in suspended culture and clams are typically grown in intertidal substrates.                                                                                                                      Crustacean culture is dominated by the farming of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei comprising almost 50% of world shrimp consumption. Hatchery methods are based on genetically selected broodstock and refined larval rearing methods. Disease has been a major factor in the development and growth of global white shrimp production. Disease control is achieved through pathogen exclusion, breeding for tolerance and management of culture systems. Commercial ongrowing systems today range from very large low density ponds, to more intensive aerated systems. As intensification increases, control of culture conditions improves. The most advanced systems today rely on biosecure super-intensive production.                                                                  

Farming of shellfish, has both positive and negative impacts on humans and on the environment. Farmed seafood provides more than half of the fisheries products consumed globally and over 80% of shellfish. With growing human populations and increasing disposable income, consumption is expected to grow considerably over the coming decades. The challenge will be how mankind meets the increasing global demand for healthy food while assuring environmental, social and economic sustainability. Shellfish culture typifies some of the greatest opportunities and most daunting problems. The culture of bivalve molluscs has minimal and mostly beneficial environmental impacts while sustainable culture of fed species such as shrimp can be much more challenging. Excellent ongoing research is elucidating pros and cons of shellfish farming in terms of water quality, coastal habitats, effects on wild conspecifics, sociopolitical conflicts, and socioeconomic opportunities in the context of sustainable healthful food production. This enables maximization of benefits while controlling conflicts and impacts. Advances in culture technologies, feeds and feeding, health management, application of information technologies and expanding integrated multitrophic systems offer a bright future for the growth of shellfish aquaculture for the benefit of mankind.


Dr. Gesche Krause

Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, and Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam

Dr. Gesche Krause

Short Bio

Dr. Gesche Krause is a social scientist, who is a senior research fellow at the Institute for Advance Sustainability Studies (IASS) in Potsdam (Germany) and works at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) in Bremerhaven (Germany). Her research centers around the development of methods to capture and link natural science findings to societal processes, focussing on sustainability issues of marine food production. She worked for the WBGU, the German Advisory Council on Global Change, the Research Council of Norway (RCN) and the EU. For the latter, she acted in 2017 as expert on the topic Food from the Oceans, in support of the European Scientific Advice Mechanism (SAM) via SAPEA (Science Advice for Policy by European Academies). Furthermore, she chairs the International Commission of the Exploration of the Seas (ICES) expert working group on social and economic dimensions of aquaculture (WGSEDA) and the working group in the EU-COST Action Oceans Past Platform (OPP) focussing on the historic dimension of marine resource use and aquaculture. Since 2016, she is part of the executive board of the global Oceans Past Initiative (OPI).

Abstract-Developing socio-economic indicators to capture the social dimensions of marine food security

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), can be viewed as a bold commitment to produce a set of universal goals that meet the urgent environmental, political and economic challenges of our time. However, whether current measurement and reporting models adequately capture contemporary conditions and challenges remains to be seen. One such challenge that has been gaining global attention is the acquisition of marine food security via sustainable aquaculture (here in particular the SDG14 Target 14.4).             

Until very recently, governments of many countries of the globe, as well as their supporting organizations, have primarily addressed the biological and technical aspects of aquaculture. In its wake, social and cultural aspects of aquaculture production have taken a backseat in contrast to trade, technology and biological implications. The SDGs however explicitly include social and economic goals that need to be recognised side by side if aquaculture is to hold its promise of feeding a hungry world. We need to appropriately capture the complexity of the linkages between aquaculture practices and their economic, social, institutional and natural environments at the operational level. The observable rise of the “social license to operate” (SLO) and the “social acceptability” (SA) discourse in contemporary aquaculture research is a case in point for the failure to capture these linkages.                                                             

 Drawing on the observation that aquaculture development in Western Societies has largely failed to capture and evaluate these social effects across different scales and contexts, the presentation showcases outcomes of a method application which operationalised a set of social dimensions indicators based on the social dimension categories put forward by the United Nations (UN). The methods employed were a suite of social science mix-methods with a strong emphasis on qualitative data that allowed to contextualize aquaculture in a detailed manner across different scales. This enabled us to apply experimental questions which addressed important social dimensions relevant to aquaculture across locations and social variables. By visualising the social effects of aquaculture, a door may be opened for new narratives on the sustainability of aquaculture that render social license to operate and social acceptability more positive for future sustainable food security.

Dr. Alon Shepon

Harvard University T. H. Chan School of Public Health


Alon Shepon

Short Bio

I am an environmental scientist with research interests in food systems, ecology, and sustainability. My current research at the Harvard School of Public Healthaims to explore the links between environment and nutrition in the context of global fisheries and promote nutrition-sensitive aquaculture. During my PhD my research was focused on understanding the implications of production and consumption of terrestrial animal based products in the USA on the environment and assess these trends within the broader context of food security. In my past I have worked both in the private sector and civil society, with the latter focused on community and women empowerment within the Bedouin community in the Negev region. Together with my interest in permaculture design and environmental sciences, my work in the Israeli Forum of Sustainable Nutrition (NGO) has been focused on disseminating evidence-based information about food to the public and implementing sustainable food systems and diets in Israel.

Abstract- Nutrition sensitive aquaculture: meeting the dual challenge of nutritional security and environmental sustainability

Malnutrition is still a major public health concern in developing countries, with micronutrient deficiencies persisting in large proportions across various population stratum. Fish are a critical source of micronutrients in many developing countries and thus can play a vital role in addressing these micronutrient deficiencies. Because declines in wild fish catch threaten nutritionally vulnerable populations, fish farming (aquaculture) presents an opportunity to meet local seafood demandand mitigate nutritional shortfalls. In this talk I demonstrate a ‘nutrition sensitive’ approachto aquaculture across three cases studies differing in time and scale: present aquaculture production (Bangladesh), future development scenarios (Indonesia) and a global scale scenario (for omega 3). Despite being large producers and consumers of fish, Bangladesh and Indonesia's farmed fish production lacks a‘nutrition-sensitive’ approach and does not target persisting malnutrition. Here, I identify systems in these locations with a high potential to contribute to sustainable development by comparing the human nutritional and environmental tradeoffs and synergies across species and production systems with a consistent methodology. I apply these results to specify aquaculture systems, both present and future, that will optimally meet nation-specific nutritional needs while minimizing environmental costs. On a global scale, preliminary results of an ongoing research reveal that global production of omega 3 via fisheries and aquaculture is suboptimal and can be increased. However, projecting into the future, closing the prevailing omega 3 gapbetween supply and demand will be increasingly difficult primarily due to large increases in demand on account of population growth especially in Asia and Africa. 



Dr. Ehud Galili

The Zinman Institute of Archaeology, and The Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime studies
University of Haifa, Israel


Ehud Galili

Short Bio

Ehud Galili (Ph.D.) is a Marine Archaeologist, a Research Fellow and a lecturer at the University of Haifa. He directed the project of the submerged Neolithic settlements off the Carmel coast (1984-2019) and the underwater archaeological surveys off the Israeli coast since 1965. His activity focuses on the study of man and sea relations and the rescue of the cultural heritage.

Galili established the marine unit of the Israel Antiquities Authority and directed it during1990-2004. As a member in the National Committee for the Protection of the coastal Environment (2004-2019) he produced policy documents and risk assessment surveys, aimed at managing and protecting the underwater and coastal cultural heritage. Research interests include: submerged prehistoric settlements, sea level changes, ancient seafaring, shipwrecks, fishing instruments, salt industry and preservation of the underwater cultural heritage.

Abstract- Fishing and marine exploitation in the ancient Levant, finds from underwater and coastal research

Coastal and underwater research along the Israeli coast revealed finds associated with fishing and auxiliary artifacts dating from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period onwards. Finds from submerged prehistoric fishing villages represent the emergence of the Mediterranean fishing village which subsisted on the exploitation of marine and terrestrial resources simultaneously. Finds from these agro - pastoral - marine villages included perforated stones used as net sinkers, fishing hooks and gorges made of bone. Flint arrowheads found there could have been used in fishing while the flint daggers found, could have been used for fishing by free diving and for fish processing. Evidences from historical periods include Netting tools and fishing hooks made of metal, discovered in shipwrecks and coastal sites. Nets, made of organic materials, were not preserved. However, the find of stone and metal Fishing gear sinkers of different types, and moulds for casting lead sinkers, indicate the use of different kinds of nets. A set of artefacts used for fishing by light was recovered in Dor "lagoon". These included a unique iron Fire basket intended for setting fire on the prow of a fishing vessel. Several red coral harvesting devices were found in shipwrecks, though there are no such corals along the Levant coast, suggesting contacts with the central Mediterranean. Rope working Tools ("spikes"), integral parts of fishermen gear, were recovered, as well as remotely operated instruments, such as sounding-weights for measuring water depths and sampling sea bottoms, and Grapnels and salvage rings for retrieving entangled and lost fishing gear. Finds associated with aquaculture include rock-cut pools used for keeping Murex snails intended for purple die production, and for keeping live fish.



Dr. Daniel Golani

Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior and the National Natural History Collections
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

Daniel Golani

Short Bio

Daniel Golani (PhD) of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem has been studying Fish Biology Ecology and fishery in Israel for over four decades. He is the curator of the Fish Collection of the National Natural History Collections of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He was Scientific Advisor of the Fishery Department, Ministry of Agriculture for over 20 years, and has published 8 books and over 200 peer-reviewed scientific articles.

His research record:

Long-term studies on the Israeli trawl fishing and Red Sea fish invasion via the Suez Canal (Lessepsian Migration) into the Mediterranean

Fishery management in the Bardawil Lagoon, northern Sinai.

Inshore (trammel net and hook-and-line) fishery of Israel.

Impact of the fish communities of heated water effluent from power plant in the Mediterranean and fish cages in Eilat.

He currently teaches academic courses at the Faculties of Life sciences and Agriculture of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Jerusalem and Rechovot), and at the Ruppin Academic Center in Mikhmoret.

Abstract- Israeli fisheries in the Mediterranean

Daniel Golani and Dor Edelist

Israel Archaeological evidence indicates that fishing in the Mediterranean has been an important food-supplying activity in Israel for more than 9,000 years. It has also been an important cultural activity in the Mediterranean and still is today. The central importance of fish in our ancestors' diet found expression in the Bible, in rules of Kashrut of fish as well as in the Book of Jonah. The annual national catch for Israel increased from about 2,500 tons in the late 1940s and 1950s to a record annual average of 4,153 t*y-1 in the 1980s. In the 1990s and 2000s, the annual catch dropped to around 3000 t*y-1 and then in the 2010s to around 2,000 t*y-1. Regarding commercial fishery management, Israeli fishery may be divided into three categories: coastal (artisanal) including standing nets and hook-and-line, purse seine fishery and trawls; there is little overlap in fish species composition between these three fishery methods. Israeli fishery is greatly influenced by the replacement of indigenous fauna by Lessepsian migrants – non-indigenous organisms (including >100 species of fish) of mainly Indo-Pacific origin. For example, the Israeli bottom trawl fishery today relies heavily on Lessepsian migrants such as the Threadfin bream Nemipterus randali, the Goldband goatfish Upeneus moluccensis and the Brushtooth lizardfish Saurida lessepsianus – all of which are also in the top 10 most common trawl fish caught in the Indian Ocean. In the last 5 years, conservation has become a major player in shaping Israel's fishing policy. A well-funded large-scale campaign by the Israeli Society for the Protection of Nature has smeared the reputation of commercial fishers as pillaging the seas, mainly targeting bottom trawling, which it defined as a particularly destructive fishing method (despite the fact that the catch of trawlers is the only one that has remained steady over the years). It should be noted that the hidden goal of the recent fishery management reform is the total cessation of trawling in Israeli waters.The convinced decision makers wish to reform Israeli fisheries with a set of regulations which all but terminate commercial fishing in the Mediterranean coast of Israel. While some aspects of the reform are welcome, such as rebuffed enforcement, seasonal and spatial closures and regulations increasing minimum lengths of fishes and minimum mesh diameter in nets, other regulations and cumulative effects are too much for most fishers to bear. In 2016 the reform was officially launched, several trawlers were decommissioned by the government and cumulative regulations decreased resulted in a total fishing effort by about 40% immediately reducing national catch to about 1,200 t*y-1. Three years into the reform fish have yet to rebound and fill the nets of fishers, nonindigenous fishes are still on the rise and while this period may be too short for nature to recover, it was certainly enough for decision maker perception and resulting regulation to shift from under-regulation right into over-regulation decimating the fleet. After millennia of fishing and struggling to survive in a changing world on land and in the sea Israeli fishers, some belonging to the weakest sector of society, have now had to endure depreciation in their reputation and socio-economic status as well. 



Boaz Tsairi

Japanese cuisine and seaweed specialist

Boaz Tsairi

Short Bio

Boaz Tsairi is a Japanese cuisine and seaweed specialist. Seaweed cultivation and processing consultant since 1989, owner of a seaweed farm. Collaborates with the Japanese Seaweed Union in a search for new markets, and serves as seaweed buyer in Japan, as well as exports seaweed to Japan.

Education Hebrew University Jerusalem Master of Arts 1992
Geography and Urban Planning and Canadian Studies
Hebrew University Jerusalem Bachelor of Arts 1988 - Geography and Anthropological Sociology

Managerial 2009-2019 - Seaweed cultivation and processing consultant internationally and Japanese quisine consultant.
2009 – Owner of four locations. Total employees: 80
2006 – Buying a second seaweed farm in Michmoret, Israel (100,000 square meters). General manager since 2006
2006 – Introducing strategic partner from Canada2006 – Buying Babette's Feast – longest-running Belgian waffle house in Israel
2003 – Opening the second Sakura Restaurant branch in Tel Aviv
2001 – Establishing the Sakura Natural Products Company (2001-2006). Purchasing seaweed farm in Rosh Hanikrah, Israel. Owner and general manager, in charge of
1999 – Establishing JP Kobo Company, specializing in Japanese cuisine
cultivation, drying and exportation of ulva and garcilaria seaweed to Japan
1994 – Opening Sakura Jerusalem Restaurant. Longest-running Japanese restaurant in Israel
1992 – Establishing Tamaribento Ltd, specializing in Japanese cuisine and seaweed.
1981 – Working for the Canadian Government at British Columbia (1981-1984)

Seaweed Since 2006 – Managing a seaweed farm in Michmoret, Israel (100,000 square meters)
Expertise 2001-2006 – Heading the Sakura Natural Products Company
Since 2001 - Owner and general manager of seaweed farm, in charge of cultivation, drying and exportation of ulva and garcilaria seaweed to Japan
Since 1992 – Heading Tamaribento Ltd, specializing in Japanese cuisine and seaweed.
Since 1990 – Travelling to Japan 2-4 times yearly, for research and training. Collaborating with the Japanese Seaweed Union in a search for new markets, and serving as a buyer in Japan (nuri, kombu, wakame,and arame), as well as exports seaweed to Japan (ulva).

Culinary 2003 – At the Sakura Restaurant branch in Tel Aviv - Owner and CEO
1999 – At the JP Kobo Company, specializing in Japanese cuisine
1994 – At the Sakura Jerusalem Restaurant.


Abstract- Seaweed as Food

Seaweed has been a component of human diet for thousands of years, or more accurately an important part of the nutritional arsenal. Not only humans but also livestock have traditionally been fed algae, both from a lack of fresh vegetables and to enhance the taste and the nutritional value.

Man has been collecting algae for thousands of years, cultivating naturally occurring algae pools as we find in Polynesia. And in large parts of Asia, it is grown in massive quantities at sea, both in warm and in cold sea water regions.

In the last century there has been a great development in the understanding of the relationship between algae taste and the different algae components, the amount of protein, the amount of sugars and the mineral contents.

Varieties of the same algae may be biologically similar but very different in taste. There are varieties that have developed tidal resistance under extreme conditions, which greatly affects the taste, compared to the same varieties which did not have to endure extreme conditions.

Taste is a product of conditions and environment in which the algae grows and there is a difference in the taste of types seaweed that may otherwise look almost identical. Only under a microscope can it be shown that the cells are placed on a membrane and each leaf has two sets of cells on both sides of the membrane. This in comparison to other similar looking seaweed that has only one set of cells without membrane.

We are now able to grow algae without a large body of water, spraying on nets with the addition of plenty of minerals. The result is a wonderful variety of healthy and edible flavors for humans.